Barefoot Running Workshop 2: Lower and Upper Biomechanics

In the first of our Barefoot Running Workshops, we explored facts and fiction of barefoot running, sensory awareness and mechanics of the foot. In our second workshop today, we introduced basic running kinematics before moving north from the foot to cover mechanics of the lower and upper body. Here’s a recap of the workshop highlights for those who missed it.

RUNNING KINEMATICS

Before diving into the nitty-gritty of leg, hip and torso function, it’s essential to understand how one gets from zero to running in the first place. Running has been described in a multitude of ways, from a controlled fall to alternating one-legged hops to a springy, aerial variant of walking. Given this confusing jumble of terminology, what then are the essential movements that convert a stationary body to a running body? The basic motion is far simpler than most runners would imagine. There’s no jumping, bouncing or flying required! In essence, running is nothing more than marching while moving forward.

March. Simply pick up the feet, the ankle gliding parallel to the shin up to the knee. Return the foot to its starting position and repeat with the other leg. That’s it. The 100-ups are a great exercise to reinforce this motor pattern.

Lean. Once you’ve mastered marching in place, it’s time to transform this into forward motion. This too is simpler than it sounds. To move forward, the body must lean forward. This lean should NOT come from bending at the waist; “sitting” or folding forward will cause a host of problems from the back to the hips to the knees. Instead, the lean should originate at the ankles, the entire body leaning angled together along the same plane. By simply adopting a slight lean from the ankles, you will fall forward and be propelled from stationary marching into forward travel. March, lean, and BAM … you’re magically running!

BIOMECHANICS II: LOWER BODY 

Lift the legs. A constant upward motion should be maintained throughout the gait cycle. This is especially important after striking, when the legs should immediately lift up. The feet should land directly under the hips, neither reaching forward nor crossing over the midline. Both overstriding and a cross-over gait can lead to various injuries. The Gait Guys offer an excellent series of videos on correcting a cross-over gait (part 1, 2 and 3).

Bend the knees. To facilitate a smooth ride, bend and relax the knees. The knees can serve as shock absorbers when allowed to flex, so the greater the bend, the less impact will be sustained upon landing. This is especially helpful when running downhill.

Stable hips. The shin bone’s connected to the thigh bone … the thigh bone’s connected to the hip bone … Yes, it’s all connected, and these chains are particularly notable in the context of how the legs move in response to the hips. The hips are indeed the powerhouse and main driver of a strong running stride. Strong, stable hips are essential, and muscular imbalances or poor hip mechanics are the source of many leg and foot injuries. Don’t let the hips sink or drop, but keep them level on the horizontal plane. The hips serve as the body’s steering wheel, so be sure to keep them facing forward and aligned with the shoulders.

BIOMECHANICS III: UPPER BODY

Core rotation. Some rotation is key to balancing the body’s left-right movements, but excessive rotation, or from the wrong place, can be problematic. Most of the rotation should originate in the core. Imagine the pelvis as a chandelier, the torso as its suspension cable and your head as the ceiling. The pelvis should dangle, relaxed, and rotate freely from the waist, supported by the strength of the strong, elongated core. As the right legs swings back, the right pelvis rotates back. It’s not forced or pulled, but swings naturally, allowing greater leg extension without over-stressing the hips. (The chandelier example was adapted from this excellent article.)

Shoulders and arms. Keep the shoulders low and relaxed, but don’t slouch. Some shoulder motion is fine, but be careful not to dip them or overly rotate the chest. After the hips, the shoulders serve as a second steering wheel, so they should remain stable and facing forward. Keep the arms close to your sides, elbows at a 90 degree angle and swinging forward and backward rather than across the chest. The rhythm of your arms directly affects hip and leg motion; a rapid arm punp can encourage faster leg turnover, and fluid forward-backward swinging will minimize inefficient lateral movements.

Head and posture. Your head leads and guides its body below. Keep your head up and neck stretched tall and long. Unlike owls, humans are blessed with eyes that move independently from the head, so you can still look at the ground without titling the head down. The entire body – from the ankles up to the tip of the head – should form a strong, continuous line, without kinks from poor posture or bending at the waist. Imagine being lifted upwards, suspended by a bird or plane (or pick your favorite flying power-creature) directly above your head.

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

Now it’s time to integrate these elements into your perfect running form! This video from the Natural Running Center is a beautiful example of a strong, efficient stride. Revisit this video and try to mimic Mark’s fluid, light motion whenever you need a refresher.

The final key to optimizing your stride is forgetting everything you just read and just run. Yes, I am (mostly) serious. Sometimes less can be more in terms of tapping into your optimal gait. Running is one of the most natural movements for humans, and a strong, healthy body will readily fall into it’s own unique running stride. Obsessing about every component of your form will not only take the joy out of running, but can also backfire, inducing unnecessary tension or forced, inefficient motor patterns. If you find this occurring while tweaking your running mechanics, abandon the effort and simply allow your body move fluidly and aimlessly. You might find that your muscles were one step ahead of your mind, and knew the route to efficient running all along.

Join us for the final session of our Barefoot Running Workshop series Sunday, July 12 at 3 pm. As usual, we’ll meet at the Founder’s Statue at the northwest corner of Balboa and El Prado in Balboa Park. In this final session, we’ll wrap up with how best to run hills and do speed work, as well as safety and practical considerations of running barefoot. More details and RSVP here.

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